Feminisation, tertiarisation, rise in qualification, short-term, part-time… A study of the ministry of Labour, published on Friday, traces the “profound changes” that have occurred in the labour market over the last 30 years.
Between the early 1980s and the early 2010s, the number of people in employment has increased from 3.4 million in mainland france, to reach 25.8 million, according to Dares statistics service of the ministry.
Over the period, the tertiary sector has increased its domination, going from 65% to 77% of total employment. The trades with the more “dynamic” are in the health, social and personal services. Home helps and childminders, for example, have tripled in 30 years, a boom, particularly due to the “aging population” and the “high-fertility”.
conversely, the industry has witnessed “a decrease of numbers marked and regular, under the effect of “automation” and “competition from low cost countries”. The sector represents more than 12% of employment, against 18 per cent previously.
the Same trend in agriculture, where numbers have shrunk by half, from two million to 958.000 people.
The job, in construction, in contrast, remained stable.
These changes were accompanied by a “strong growth of the business in the most qualified” and a jump in the level of education of persons in employment. Eight out of ten have a degree, compared to less than 50% in the early 1980s.
But this does not imply a “general decline in low-skilled employment”, because if the numbers of unskilled workers have fallen, those employees non-qualified have increased greatly, including home occupations, “which are not capable of being outsourced nor automated”.
Other major trend of these last decades” : the “strong” feminization of employment” (48% of jobs, compared with 41% previously). The number of active women has increased by 3.2 million. Their presence has “increased significantly” in administration services, the bank-insurance or among the law professionals. Some trades them, however, remain closed : maintenance, construction, mechanical, etc
In parallel, part-time work has exploded, with 4.8 million people, compared to 2.2 million before, mainly women (79%).
The period was also marked by the increase in short-term contracts (CDD, interim), which reach the proportion of 11%, against 9%, with an acceleration of more marked among young people (27% of the under 30 years of age, compared with 16%).
The number of non-salaried workers (self-employed, liberal professions…) has fallen in 30 years, to 3.8 million, compared to a 2.9. The share of wage employment has increased from 83% to 89%.