Saturday, February 11, 2017

France remains the first tourist destination in the world, despite a decrease in the number in 2016 – The World

Between 82,5 and 83 million foreign tourists visited France last year, announced Jean-Marc Ayrault. Estimates decrease compared to the record high of 85 million recorded in 2015.

The Eiffel tower at the launch of the campaign for the olympics 2024 in Paris, on 3 February.

According to estimates, between at 82.5 and 83 million foreign tourists visited France in 2016, said on Friday 10 February, the minister of foreign affairs, Jean-Marc Ayrault. A decrease in the number from the previous record of $ 85 million saved in 2015, but that maintain the country to the rank of first world tourist destination.

For Mr. Ayrault, ” 2016 is going to stay a year apart, because of the terrorist attacks, inclement weather, and social movements “. the ” The destination France has suffered, “ but the first estimates on the number of foreign visitors – who come from the Directorate-general for enterprise and the Bank of France – to ensure pre-empt, as in 2015, the United States and Spain in terms of tourist numbers, he said.

Read also : Tourism : France is in State of emergency

Videosurveillance and home

The minister also commended the efforts made by the government and professionals to improve the image of the French tourism abroad, including a ” promotion plan “ target of 10 million euros. Many of the cancellations from japanese tourists had been recorded after the attacks that had hit France, but there is now a massive return of the customer in japanese with ” of airline reservations, an increase of 60 % to Paris for the first quarter of 2017 “, has supported Mr Ayrault.

so far, ” a great site remains to be done to ensure France remains a global destination “, has noted the minister, now the government’s objective of reaching the symbolic threshold of ” 100 million tourists by 2020 “. the ” beyond emergency measures “, such as video surveillance, to ensure the safety of foreign tourists on the territory, ” we need to act on home, the quality, readability, “, has added the head of the diplomacy, saying that ” the new offer to be put in place is not necessarily the top of the range “.

The final number of tourists who visited France in 2016 should be unveiled in march by the national Institute of statistics and economic studies (INSEE).

Read also : Tourism in France : a bad been linked to the decline of foreign visitors


Greek debt : Alexis Tsipras has accused the IMF of “dragging things” – The World

the Lack of progress towards an agreement for the maintenance of the Greece under-infusion at home, the Greek prime minister has tancé vigorously the international monetary fund and the euro zone.

The Greek Prime minister, Alexis Tsipras, in a speech at the opening of the central committee of his party of the left, Syriza, in Athens (Greece), February 11, 2017.

Enervé by the trampling of the back of the Greek crisis in Brussels, Alexis Tsipras has taken Saturday 11 February, in front of his party, to the euro zone and the international monetary Fund (IMF). Opening a meeting of the central committee of Syriza in Athens, the Greek prime minister has accused the IMF and the German finance minister, Wolfgang Schaüble, ” play with fire “.

The day before, a meeting held in Brussels between the Greek part, the euro zone and the IMF would pave the way for an agreement for the maintenance of Greece in debt distress under perfusion, which have been presented at the next meeting of the finance ministers of the euro area on 20 February.

Read also : ultra-Sensitive, the case of greece divided the member States of the international monetary Fund

While fears of a new Greek crisis has emerged in Europe and on the markets, Mr Tsipras has conditioned a return to Athens of the representatives of the creditors to a change of direction of the IMF :

” We look forward to the more soon as possible, as the IMF revises its forecasts (…) so that discussions can continue at the technical level (…). The IMF continues to a poker game by dragging things out because he doesn’t want to place the blame on the intransigence of the German minister [Wolfgang Schaüble] and displays constantly new demands absurd for the offence to be rejected on Greece. “

and Then he specifically called upon the German chancellor, Angela Merkel, ” to encourage his finance minister to put an end to its aggression, continuing “ Athens.

However, confident of an agreement

After you have blown the hot, the Greek prime minister has blown the cold, saying it was still confident on the fact that an agreement will be found. It has relied on in this sense, a decline of theses ultralibérales in Europe, particularly in Germany, and the need for the EU to close ranks in the face of euroscepticism.

” The review “ of the Greek program, including the closure conditions for the payment of new loans, ” will be concluded and in a positive manner “,-he said. However, there are no clear pathway to an outcome, while, according to media reports, the majority of which has only three votes ahead of Parliament, is divided between the supporters of new concessions to creditors and lawyers of the firm.

The country, which will have honour in July claims more than six billion euros, is caught for weeks in a dispute between the IMF and the eurozone, which écharpent on the extent of debt relief to lend and effort to claim them from the Greeks.

A debt “unsustainable” according to the IMF

Pessimistic, in view of the errors and failures accumulated since the beginning of the Greek crisis in 2010, the IMF released Tuesday a report that Greek debt is ” unsustainable “. He also disputes the extent of the target of primary surplus (excluding debt service), to 3.5 per cent of GDP, the euro area calls for after 2018.

But the options it is considering, including a substantial reduction of the debt, or a withdrawal from the programme of loans to Greece, are categorically excluded by Mr. Schaüble in view of the elections which will be held at the end of 2017 in Germany. Failing this, the IMF demands that Athens legislate in advance of new tax increases and cuts to pensions, a stopgap, this time, rejected by Greece.


Tsipras called on the IMF and Schaüble to stop “playing with fire” – The Express

Opening a meeting of his party, the Syriza left, the Prime minister, however, said confident that in the end, an agreement will be reached between Greece and its creditors, following a meeting in Brussels concluded without a breakthrough.

It has conditioned a return to Athens of the representatives of the creditors to a change of direction of the IMF: “We look forward to the more soon as possible, as the IMF revises its forecasts (…) so that discussions can continue at the technical level“, he started.

He also specifically called upon the German chancellor, Angela Merkel “to encourage his Finance minister to put an end to his aggression permanently” towards Greece.

Mr Tsipras, speaking after a Brussels meeting aimed to revive the negotiations for the maintenance of the highly indebted country on financial aid, so that the fear of a new Greek debt crisis is fueled by months of disagreements between the euro area and the IMF.

This meeting has not achieved progress, the IMF is insisting on clarification pessimistic of the Greek economy.

The Fund accordingly calls for a substantial reduction of the debt of the country, excluded by Berlin, and additional measures of austerity measures, denied by Athens, to keep the ambitious objectives of budgetary surplus assigned to the country by its lenders european.


Decrease in the number of foreign tourists in 2016 –

Decrease in the number of foreign tourists by 2016

photo Credit © Reuters

PARIS (Reuters) – The number of foreign visitors in France (including overseas france) was recorded between at 82.5 and 83 million in the past year, significantly less than the record $ 85 million achieved a year earlier, announced Friday the minister of foreign Affairs.

In a press release, he emphasized that, despite the impact of the islamist attacks of November 2015 in Paris and Saint-Denis, and on 14 July in Nice, France is evidence of resilience, with a total”ensures the maintenance of its status as a first world tourist destination.”

“Without minimizing the economic impact of this difficult year on the professionals, particularly in the hospitality industry (-5,7% for overnight stays) and in some regions (Paris/Ile-de-France, PACA), we can enjoy a bounce evident at the end of 2016 (room nights, an increase of +2.9%) and early 2017 (booking airlines up 10.4%, to Paris, in the 1st quarter),” said the ministry.

It welcomes the effectiveness of efforts to target promotion put in place by the government and the actors of the sector in the direction of some markets in which, for example, “a massive return of the japanese client with airline reservations, an increase of 60%, to Paris, in the 1st quarter.”

Insee reported this week of a strong rebound (+3.9 per cent) in tourist numbers, calculated in nights, in the fourth quarter in France, while pointing out that it was mainly the result of customer French and, to a lesser extent, to foreign customers.

But on the whole of 2016, it shows a decline of 1.3%.

About 300,000 businesses and self-entrepreneurs (+5% since 2013) work in the tourism sector in France, which represents two million direct and indirect jobs, whose share in the gross domestic product is 7.4%.

The government has set as its goal $ 100 million foreign tourists per year by 2020, with an increase in the length of stays and an increase in average spending per visitor.

(Yann Le Guernigou, edited by Yves Clarisse)


Friday, February 10, 2017

A resignation within the Fed gives a new advantage to Trump to deregulate the finance – The World

Named by Barack Obama to oversee the large us banks, Daniel Tarullo, has announced his departure.

View of the u.s. federal Reserve (Fed) in Washington, d.c., September 17, 2015.

Daniel Tarullo, one of the principal architects of the strengthening of financial regulation in the United States, announced on Friday, February 10, his resignation from the board of governors of the federal Reserve (Fed). Even if he did not give a reason for his departure, which should take place on 5 April, the decision of Mr. Tarullo comes a few days after the signing by Donald Trump of a decree aimed at easing the regulatory framework of finance.

Mr. Tarullo, 64, had been appointed by Barack Obama in January 2009 to oversee the major banks of the united states to avoid a new financial crisis. The role of this former professor of law at Georgetown university has been to establish stricter rules requiring the institutions of Wall Street to make more secure their capital structures by strengthening their own funds.

based on the Dodd-Frank act passed in 2010, he helped to set up tests of strength, to gauge the ability of large banks to face a new financial crisis. In order to avoid that us taxpayers are not again put at contribution to bailing out the banking system in the event of collapse.

Opinion divided on its balance sheet

The opinion on the assessment of its action are shared. Some consider that it has effectively rendered the u.s. banking system the most solid in the binding to take less risk. On Friday, Janet Yellen, the Fed president, has paid tribute to his action, calling his contribution of’” priceless “. But, on the other, to the left, criticize him for not having been far enough in not daring to put not question the principle of the “too-big-too-fail” (banks being too big to let them fail). In contrast, the banking lobby accuses him of having cut off the wings of large establishments to force regulation, while giving undue influence to the us government in the banking business.

These criticisms have been widely taken up by Gary Cohn, the director of the national economic Council at the White House. the ” We have the best banks of the world and the best-capitalized and we should use our competitive advantage. On the other hand, we also have the banks, the most regulated in the world, “ said the former number two at Goldman Sachs a few days ago in an interview with the Wall Street Journal,, adding that the new administration wanted to ” unlock “ this system that has been ” crowd capital.” In response, Mr. Tarullo and Ms. Yellen reaffirmed that the Dodd-Frank act should not be watered down because it has helped to reduce the risks within the financial system.


In any case, the departure of Mr. Tarullo is an opportunity for Mr. Trump to change the political sensitivities within the Fed. Because, in addition to its role on the regulation, Mr. Tarullo is also a voting member of the monetary policy committee of the central bank. However, after his resignation, no less than three seats are now vacant.

late last year, Mr. Obama had proposed to nominate Allan Landon, a former officer of the Bank of Hawaii, and Kathryn Dominguez, a professor at the University of Michigan, but the Senate, republican majority, had opposed it. Furthermore, the vice-chairman of the Fed, Stanley Fischer, has to leave his post in June 2018, while Mr. Trump has hinted that he will not renew the mandate of Ms. Yellen, who, too, has a maturity date in 2018.

The dismantling of financial regulation promises to be definitely more difficult than what Mr. Trump. Indeed, it is necessary that Congress take up the amendments, the voting, and then the regulators will interpret the new rules, before making them applicable. A process that could take several years. In contrast, in the shorter term, Mr. Trump has the opportunity to nominate candidates more in line with his vision of both the monetary policy and regulation. To replace Mr. Tarullo, we talk about David Nason, currently CEO of a financial subsidiary of the conglomerate General Electric and a former manager at the secretariat of Finance.


PSA : soon bogged down in the dieselgate ? – Franceinfo

PSA drew the attention of the justice in the case of the diesel. It is the fourth automotive manufacturer to be obliged to explain on the rate of pollution of its engines. An investigation of the direction of the repression of the frauds was already in progress against the PSA. After testing the emission of CO2 and nitrogen, searches, the folder has just been sent to the prosecutor.

The constructor defends itself of any cheating. the “We were extremely surprised and even shocked. We invented the particle filter in the 2000 years before it is widespread. We have generalized the best technologies to remove pollution from our cars. And so, clearly, we have never deceived neither the regulator, nor any of our clients. And we do not understand this decision”, ” says Gilles Le Borgne, director of quality and engineering of the PSA. Yet another implementation issue in what is called the dieselgate. The case is now in the hands of the public prosecutor of Versailles.


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Clap end for Euro Disney in the stock Exchange – The World

Under pressure, the american parent company wants to take 100 % of the share capital of the park of Marne-la-Vallée.

The generic end approach to one of the most disastrous adventures ever signed by Disney, that of its subsidiary, Euro Disney Stock. Under pressure, the group in california announced on Friday 10 February, its intention to launch a public offer to buy the 23 % that he has not yet in Euro Disney, the company that operates the theme park in Marne-la-Vallée, near Paris, and loses millions for years. The Walt Disney Company plans to inject 1.5 billion euros to bail out its French park.

” This is the right solution, the one that demanded for years that the minority shareholders and a part of the members of the board of directors “, ” says one of those who pushed for this decision. the ” The shareholding wanted by Mitterrand and his team in the 1980s did not make sense for an infrastructure of this kind, “, judge a professional.

also Read : Disney breaks records at the cinema, but suffers in television

Commercially, Disneyland Paris has long been a success. After the initial tumultuous, the company has become one of the first tourist destinations in Europe. But financially, the dream machine has turned into a nightmare.

” An emblematic case of bad governance, “

In twenty-five years, it has been shown that seven-year beneficiaries. In recent times, expectations for improvement have been showered by the attacks and the state of emergency, which plunged the whole of the tourism sector-French. In its last annual accounts, arrested in late September, the company has had to spend a charge of 953 million euros, reflecting the drop in value of the park. Since its opening in April 1992, it came close several times to filing of balance sheet and has had to make four financial restructurings.

what despair the shareholders. In Exchange, the action, Euro Disney has dropped from 77 % in five years. And the minority have started to kick over the traces. the ” The company may be profitable, but the money is long gone in the United States, in the form of royalties, management fees, etc “, comments on Catherine Berjal, the fund’s activist CIAM. Considering Euro Disney as a ” an emblematic case of bad governance and abuse of an american group “,, the fund referred the matter to the justice. An investigating judge was appointed he was a few months ago. CIAM is claiming that Disney reverse nearly 1 billion euros to its subsidiary, in order to compensate samples be regarded as undue for the past ten years.

Read also : Disney is investing a billion dollars in online video, buying BAMTech

Some independent directors are also mounted to the niche, the image of Valérie Bernis, who eventually resigned in January, in disagreement with the management. In their eyes, Disney was against the interest of its subsidiary, by forcing them to invest heavily in the park without having the means. Virginie Calmels, who was presiding over the council, has also resigned, to devote himself to his political activities.

massive Recapitalisation

In 2014, Disney has made a first gesture by injecting funds. The group has also waived for two years to most of the punctures he was doing.

The measures announced on Friday will further. The american company has bought the bulk of the 10 % held in Euro Disney saudi prince Al-Walid, the main minority. She offers to buy their shares at the same price of 2 euros per share, or 67% more than the last. A bonus look rather generous, in order to convince the maximum of small holders and then withdraw Euro Disney rating.

Disney will then be able to manage its own subsidiary as it sees fit, without being in a conflict of interest with perpetual its in the minority. Convinced that the park of the future, the group plans to recapitalize massively. On 26 march, Disneyland Paris will launch a new attraction inspired by Star Wars with the promising name : “The Adventure continues “.


France remains the first tourist destination world – The Express

Between 82,5 and 83 million foreign visitors in 2016: this is the first official estimate provided by the government – compared to the record high of 85 million international tourists who had visited france in 2015, down between 2.3 and 2.9%.

2016 is going to stay a year apart, because of the terrorist attacks, inclement weather, and social movements“, said the minister of foreign Affairs, also in charge of the Tourism, travel to Biarritz and Bayonne.

destination +France+ has suffered“, but the attendance estimated for the last year performs “France is still the place of world’s leading tourist destination” in front of the United States and Spain, the minister said.

He also pointed out that the government’s goal – set in June 2014, i.e. before the wave of attacks to reach the 100 million foreign tourists by 2020 was still valid.

The title of the good news, the chief of diplomacy has done in the state of a “mass return of the japanese client“, which had been particularly rebuked by the terrorist attacks of 2015 and 2016.

More generally, the Quai d’orsay has set before “a rebound is evident at the end of 2016” of tourism in terms of overnight stays recorded, as well as “beginning 2017” regarding the airline reservations “increase of 10.4% to Paris in the first quarter of“.

It has really begun a recovery from September/October, and the end of the year, November and December was better than expected“, confirmed to the AFP, Christian Mantei, ceo of Atout France, the agency for the promotion of tourism in the country.

the hotel in Paris sits up –

A revival ofwhich is confirmed by increasing in January and February, with numbers that are recovering in the capital,”-he stressed.

Because it is above all the hotels in Paris, more than in the cities of the province, which has suffered from the disaffection: the ministry of foreign Affairs recalls that it should not be “minimize the impact of this difficult year on the professionals, particularly in the hospitality sector, with -5,7% for the nights“.

2016 was a difficult year for our businesses, especially in Paris and on the Côte d’azur” admitted Roland Héguy, president of the main organization of the sector, the Umih.

He stressed that the decrease in the Hexagon “was expected by the professionals“, while calling it “acontained“. He called to put the “heading on 2017. We must redouble our efforts to catch up our delay, and to achieve the goal of 100 million tourists by 2020“.

on Tuesday, the Insee was encrypted for the first time the recovery observed by many professionals of tourism end-of-year: the number of nights accumulated by the foreign tourists and French has increased by 2.9% over the last three months of 2016, a level higher than it was two years ago at the same time, which is before the attacks.

Insee should not communicate prior to April revenues final for 2016 as a whole. However, if we add the preliminary data already published quarter by quarter, the decline in overnight stays of foreign tourists displays for the moment -6,8% compared to 2015, according to a calculation made by the AFP.


Tourism : despite the attacks, France remains the first destination –

Credit : AFP / Ludovic Marin

The Eiffel tower under a bright winter sun, on January 14, 2017

France continues to resonate as much. This is the conclusion drawn by Jean-Marc Ayrault, who announced, on February 10, that for the year 2016, the country retained its place as the world’s leading tourist destination. And this despite a decrease recorded in connection with the attacks in Paris in November 2015 and Nice in July 2016. Thus, between at 82.5 and 83 million foreign tourists have trampled the French soil in 2016, according to initial official estimates provided by the government. This represents a decrease of 2.3 to 2.9 % compared to the year 2015 (85 million foreign tourists).

The ministry of foreign and european Affairs has estimated that “2016 is going to stay for one year, because of terrorist attacks, inclement weather, and social movements“, but that, despite this context of the more specific, the France remained the world’s leading destination, and this ahead of the United States and Spain. Jean-Marc Ayrault has also reaffirmed the goal set by the government, that is, 100 million foreign tourists by 2020. A number that had been decided in June 2014, i.e. before the wave of terrorist attacks that hit France and Europe in particular.

The return of the empire of the rising sun

Among the reasons of these good results, the head of diplomacy referred to a “bounce evident at the end of 2016″ in terms of overnight stays recorded. The trends for the beginning of the year 2017 following the same path with an increase of 10.4 % of airline reservations to the destination of Paris in the first half. The director general of Atout France, the agency for the promotion of tourism in france, confirmed that France “has really begun a recovery from September/October”, and that the end of 2016, had been “better than expected”.

Jean-Marc Ayrault has also praised the return “massive” customer japanese who had shunned France from the end of 2015. Many tourists who cancelled their arrival in France after attacks in Paris and then, later, Nice. According to The World, Jean-Marc Ayrault has praised “the airline reservations, an increase of 60 % to Paris for the first quarter of 2017″ on the sole japanese client. The government had announced in November 2016 that it was releasing a budget of forty million euros to support the tourism sector-French. The challenge security is a priority of France, some 15 million euros had been allocated specifically to the safety of foreign tourists.

The recovery in paris

If the recovery is strengthening in January and February, it can be seen especially in the capital. The hotel industry paris had suffered greatly of the disaffection of tourists, more than the cities of the province. The Quai d’orsay, recalling that the sector, for the nights had recorded a decrease of 5.7 %. “2016 was a difficult year for our businesses, especially in Paris and on the Côte d’azur”, has confirmed Roland Héguy, president of the primary organization hoteliere, Umih. If the decline of cinema attendance in France after attacks in Paris and Nice was expected, it has, however, stated that it had been “contained”.

on The 7th of February, the Insee had already delivered its first estimates about the recovery of tourism activity in the country. On the last three months of the year 2016, the number of nights accumulated by foreign tourists and French rose: 2.9 %. The final figures for 2016 should not, however, fall before the month of April. But according to a calculation of the AFP, having collected the provisional data published by quarter, the total number of overnight stays of foreign tourists decreased by 6.8% compared to 2015.

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Strong one-year “record”, Renault displays its ambitions for 2022 –

Renault seeks 70 billion euros of revenue at the horizon 2022.-AFP/LOIC VENANCERenault seeks 70 billion euros of revenue at the horizon 2022.-AFP/LOIC VENANCE

with a Strong record of activity and a profit record in 2016 on the back of strong volume growth and profitability, Renault announced on Friday that aim for 70 billion euros of revenue at the horizon 2022.

The French car manufacturer has posted a net income increase of 19.7% 3.54 billion euros, on sales of 51.2 billion (+13.1% compared to 2015).

This strong growth is due in particular to vehicles of the group (Renault, Dacia and Renault Samsung Motors), which jumped 13.3% compared to 2015 and reached 3.18 million units thanks to the Europe, India, and Iran, among others.

Renault has pleased a little to PSA the place of first French company of the sector in terms of volumes.

These results also reflect an increase of sales to partners – Renault factory including utilities, Fiat, Opel and Mercedes in its factories – and increasing the operational efficiency: 6.4% of revenue compared to 5.2% in 2015.

“2016 was a very good year for the Renault group. We have achieved record growth and profitability record,” fruit “of years of effort and discipline,” and looked forward to its CEO Carlos Ghosn during a press conference at the company’s headquarters in Boulogne-Billancourt, france (southwest of Paris).

The group has exceeded the “one year ahead” the two objectives of its strategic plan: operational profitability of more than 5% and a turnover of more than € 50 billion. “The outcome is clear and without appeal in spite of an environment that is not a carrier,” assured Mr. Ghosn.

With its geographical diversification, “the company is sitting on a base incomparably more solid today, with a potential of strong growth allowing him to address 2017 and beyond with confidence,” he promised, while mentioning the risks: a rise in the price of raw materials, the “Brexit” and possible changes to international trade agreements.

- Capacity used to 100% -

Carlos Ghosn during the press conference at the company's headquarters in Boulogne-Billancourt on April 10, 2017-AFP/ERIC PIERMONTCarlos Ghosn during the press conference at the company’s headquarters in Boulogne-Billancourt on April 10, 2017-AFP/ERIC PIERMONT

Renault, that comes to sign in France a new social agreement three-year with three majority unions asking for more flexibility to employees in exchange for a guarantee of a certain level of activity in the factories, prides itself on a level of utilization of its capacity by 100% in 2016, “a performance without precedent for the group”, according to Mr Ghosn.

The CGT, the second union at Renault, said that these results, achieved in part thanks to “productivity gains taxed to the employees”, “must be used for increases in salaries, hiring, improvement of working conditions”.

The company emphasized to have suffered by 2016 a strong negative effect of foreign exchange (-702 million euros), due to the depreciation of the pound sterling and the argentine peso, and have had to consent to an increase in research and development expenses.

in Addition to the 70 billion euros of activity (at constant exchange rates) with a maturity of five years, the new strategic plan for Renault to be presented in detail in October, aims to reach an operating margin of 7%, while displaying a cash flow positive each year.”

In the immediate future, the group plans by 2017 to increase its turnover beyond the effect of Avtovaz (at constant exchange rates)”.

Avtovaz, a Russian manufacturer in trouble and bailed out in 2016 by Renault, will be consolidated for the first time in the accounts in 2017, and Mr. Ghosn has forecast a return to profit by 2018 in favor of a recovery plan.

In 2015, Nissan, of which Renault owns 43.4 per cent, had contributed to two-thirds of the net income of the French group. Last year, the contribution of the japanese manufacturer has accounted for half of the profits: 1.74 billion euros. Avtovaz has had a negative impact of 89 million euros in the accounts, after -620 million in 2015.

Finally, Renault announced that it had no past history of provisions to deal with the possible financial consequences of a case of emissions from diesel engines is to be referred by a judicial investigation in France for “deception”.

Repeating Friday that”there is no cheating at Renault,” Mr. Ghosn remarked that his company did not have access to the court file, but the”we know what we have in our engines. And when you look at what there is in our engines, we don’t need to spend any of the provisions”.


Employment in the private sector is finally taking off, with 191.700 creations in 2016 – The Express

The country was no longer recorded as rate of net job creation since 2007. The private sector (non-agricultural) earned in the course of the year 191.700 additional posts (+1,2%), according to an estimate by the Insee published on Friday. There is a strong acceleration, after one year 2015 which had seen 99.000 posts to create and three years in the red in 2012, 2013 and 2014.

at the End of 2016, the actual merchants have reached 16,16 million people, a level unprecedented since the end of 2008.

In 10 years, we have been able to reconstruct the lost jobs and create more“, is met François Hollande during a trip to Valencia. According to the head of the State, “innovation” and “competitiveness found” of the companies who have enabled these results, “in spite of a growth rate (1.1% in 2016 as in 2015, editor’s NOTE) which is not the highest“.

The recovery of our economy is now fully confirmed“, has, for its part, welcomed the minister of Labour, Myriam El Khomri, in a press release.

The year 2016 ending in beauty, with 62.200 job creations (+0.4%) in the 4th quarter. “This is the seventh consecutive quarter of increase, 300.300, the number of net new jobs created” on the period, stressed Ms. El Khomri.

On the 4th quarter as year-on-year, the employment market is being driven by the services and the acting. In 2016, the tertiary sector has created, out of acting, 151.300 positions (+1.4%) and temporary employment 69.300 positions (+11.8 per cent). With 654.100 positions, temporary employment has reached its highest level since early 2008. The sector is regarded as a precursor of trends in employment.

- Three years late –

for the industry (-23.200, 0.7%) and construction (-5.700, -0,4%), two sectors lastingly affected, their situation continued to deteriorate. The plants have lost, in 15 years, nearly one million jobs, or a quarter of their workforce, while the building has lost more than 200,000 jobs since 2008. The hemorrhage was, however, almost to a standstill in the construction.

In total, the jobs created by 2016, many more than the expected increase of the active population (+the 126,000 according to the Insee), are a good omen in view of the publication next Thursday of the unemployment rate at the end of 2016.

The 3rd quarter, the indicator stood at 9.7% in metropolitan france, and 10.0% in France, down 0.2 percentage point from the beginning of 2016.

Pôle emploi, he has already published its figures for the full year 2016. On a year, 107.400 unemployed (-3,0%) have left the lists of the operator in metropolitan france.

But despite the good trend, the situation remains very poor, with between 2,81 and 3.47 million people unemployed, depending on whether one relies on the latest figures from the Insee, or by the Pôle emploi.

The decline in unemployment and the resumption of employment are, moreover, accompanied by an increase in precarious, as illustrated by the outbreak (+5,5%) in the number of registered job seekers in categories B and C to Pôle emploi, which perform a small activity.

And the upgrade comes with three years of delay. François Hollande, who has resigned in December to run for a second term, had originally pledged his famous “inversion of the unemployment curve” for 2013. The results came in “later than I had planned“, granted the president during his New Year’s greetings.

tired of waiting, the voters, the socialists have chosen, to succeed him, a candidate, Benoît Hamon, who has fought the economic policy of the quinquennium.


France created a record number of jobs since 2007, Le Figaro

The French economy has created 191.700 jobs by 2016, reports the Insee. A marked improvement, which mainly refers to the services and the acting.

The French economy has created, net, 191.700 positions in the merchant sector (1.2 per cent) in 2016, which is the best performance on the front private-sector employment since 2007, according to an estimate by the Insee published on Friday. This indicator mainly relates to the salaried positions of the non-agricultural private sector. This constitutes an acceleration of the employment market, after a year 2015 that had seen 99.000 posts to create. France had lost jobs during the previous three years.

“The turnaround of our economy is now fully confirmed: business support has enabled them to regain margins that allow them to invest in a dynamic way and creating jobs at a pace that we had not known for nine years,” said Myriam El Khomri, minister of Labour, in a press release on Friday.

The staff of the commercial sector have reached 16,16 million people by the end of 2016, a level unprecedented since the end of 2008. The year ended in style, with 62.200 creations net positions (+0.4 percent) in the fourth quarter. “These figures reflect a clear trend: our economy creates more jobs, more quickly. Our economic policy that needs continuity and time to produce concrete and sustainable results, the government will continue its efforts until the end of its mandate in order to consolidate the momentum observed,” said the minister.

” READ ALSO: The French economy has created to 51,200 jobs in the third quarter

This estimate of the number of job creations is also superior to that of the increase of the active population in 2016 (+the 126,000 according to the Insee), which portend a decline in unemployment. Insee will communicate next Thursday its figures for unemployment at the end of 2016. On the quarter as year-on-year, the rally has been concerned with the services and the acting, while industry and construction have continued to destroy jobs. In 2016, the tertiary sector has created, out of acting, 151.300 positions (+1.4%) and temporary employment 69.300 positions (+11.8 per cent). With 654.100 positions, temporary employment has reached its highest level since early 2008. The sector is regarded as a precursor of trends in employment. As to the employment of the industry (-23.200, 0.7%) and construction (-5.700, -0,4%), it continued to deteriorate. These last two areas are permanently inundated. The plants have lost, in 15 years, nearly one million jobs, or a quarter of their workfo rce, while the building has lost more than 200,000 jobs since 2008. The hemorrhage was, however, almost to a standstill in the construction.

SERVICE:Find the latest job offers on


RSI: the self-employed do not want their social system – The Figaro

RSI was created in 2006 following the merger of three funds of social protection of entrepreneurs. The plan manages the health insurance of liberal professionals, craftsmen and merchants, and the retirement of the artisans and the merchants.

The IHR was created in 2006 following the merger of three funds of social protection of entrepreneurs. The plan manages the health insurance of liberal professionals, craftsmen and merchants, and the retirement of the craftsmen and merchants. photo Credits : THOMAS SAMSON/AFP

INFO LE FIGARO – Tired of the malfunctions repeatedly, the self-employed workers overwhelmingly want to leave their social protection system and opt for of the articles of association that are less advantageous.

The relations between independent workers and their welfare regime, the social Regime of independent (RSI), do not improve. According to the third edition of the barometer of their union, of which Le Figaro publishes the results in exclusivity, 76 % of them have a negative assessment of the plan and 94 % feel that its implementation in 2008 was not a advanced for their social protection.

Pis, 78 % felt that the services of the IHR have not improved in recent years, despite the efforts to erase the multiple malfunctions of which he was accused (I) incorrect calculation of contributions, receipt of mail, contradictory, difficult, or even impossible, to reach a contact, etc.). Result, 23 % of independent respondents expecting to change their status this year, a rate of more than 10 points to the one of 2015, and three times more important than in 2014. Aware of the challenge, all the presidential candidates have a idea of reform on the subject.

Find the contents of this folder in Le Figaro to be published on Friday 10 February, and on the Web, mobiles and tablets to the subscribers Figaro Premium

” The independents are really more of the RSI, regime social protection
” A theme that has emerged in the heart of the presidential


France-job creation from the private to the highest since 2007 – Boursorama


 (Updated with the figures of the terms and conditions of employment) PARIS, feb 10 (Reuters) - wage employment in The tradable sectors to non-agricultural has increased by 0.4% in the fourth quarter in France and shows an increase of 1.2% over the whole of the year 2016, the highest for nine years in both cases, according to the "flash" estimate published Friday by Insee. In total, the number of jobs created reached 62.200 in the fourth quarter, the highest level since the first quarter of 2007, and it amounted to 191.700 positions on the year, an unprecedented number since 2007. Creations net job in the private sector are in the green for seven consecutive quarters, underlines the Insee. They have further accelerated in the fourth quarter compared to the previous quarter, while the institute has reviewed a slight rise in the observed increase over the period, 52.400 against 52.200 the first estimate. In the fourth quarter, employment went slightly down in the construction sect   or (down by 0.1%, 1.900 positions destroyed), while it was stabilized in the fall after being destructive of posts since the spring of 2012. It continued to decline at the same rate in the industry (-0,2%, with 4.700 jobs destroyed), that has not been in a situation of net job creation since the beginning of 2001. By contrast, employment in the tertiary sector as a whole has continued to grow in the fourth quarter, posting an increase of 0.6%, 68.800 jobs created, after +0.5% in the third quarter, up 6.0% (after +5.3 per cent) in the only sector of the acting. Outside of acting, employment in the tertiary sector rose 0.3% (+31.600) on the quarter and 1.4% year on year (+151.300). The Dares (Directorate for studies and statistics of the ministry of Labour) has stated in a separate press release that the index of the basic monthly salary (SMB) had risen by 0.1% in the last quarter of 2016 and 1.2% year on year. The index of the hourly wage base of workers and employees (SHBOE) recorde   d an increase comparable quarter and a slightly lower, 1.1%, year on year. In comparison, the annual inflation rate (excluding tobacco) amounted to 0.6% over the twelve months to the end of December. Detailed statistics on the Insee website : Data of the Dares: indicators French real-time ECONFR indicators of the euro area in real-time ECONEZ The point on the French economy ECO/EN (Myriam Rivet, edited by Wilfrid Exbrayat and China Labbé) 

Thursday, February 9, 2017

Guide Michelin : Auvergne loses a michelin-starred restaurant – Franceinfo

Savoie: Yannick Alléno won three Michelin stars for le 1947 in Courchevel Michelin-2017 : the winners of the new michelin-Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Three communes of the Isère and isolated after a major landslide Visit of François Hollande in the Allier, follow his speech live A tanker truck overturned on the side of the A43, in the department of Isère JT 19/20 Auvergne JT 19/20 Rhône-Alpes-Drôme: the two randonneuses found safe and sound in the massif of the Vercors, Puy-de-Dôme particularly affected by nitrate pollution


A record of exports of alcohols French in 2016 – The World

the success of The cognac has pulled the sales of wines and spirits hexagonal. The trade surplus of the sector reached 10.5 billion euros.

World | • updated | By

Remy Martin displays a growth of 11.2 %, over the last nine months of 2016.

If the trade balance in france has deteriorated in 2016, the sales of wines and spirits not of this counter-performance. Quite to the contrary. Even if the increase is limited to 1.2% compared to 2015, they were signed to a new record high at 11.9 billion euros. The same for the trade surplus, which reached 10.5 billion euros, up 1 %, according to figures released on Thursday 9 February by the Federation of exporters of wines and spirits of France (FEVS).

” It is a good performance, which is wines and spirits the second largest contributor to the trade surplus of France behind the aerospace, down 16 %. And in front of the cosmetics, which increased by 2 % “, ” says Christophe Navarre, president of the FEVS. A result that owes much to the excellent performance of the cognac.

” brown Spirits in effervescence “

indeed, in the Charente, the year 2016 is also qualified historic. Nearly 179 million bottles of the precious water of life ‘ have been sold. Mostly out of France. Because the cognac has still not managed to renew with the French consumers. They bought that 4 million bottles, a figure which is down compared to 2015. Unlike the Americans, who pays lip service to this alcohol and fuel its growth. The number of bottles that have passed across the Atlantic jumped by 14 %, what to consolidate first place the cognac market.

” This category of brown spirits is in effervescence in the United States “, ” says Alexandre Ricard, CEO of the group Pernod Ricard. To seduce the Americans, the second world group of spirits has just marketed a new variation of its mark Martell, Martell Blue Swift. This is not, strictly speaking, the cognac, but an eau-de-vie made from wine aged in bourbon barrels. Other good news : a stabilization of sales in Asia and a return to normal in China, after the air hole that shook the market for three years.

Read also : The wines of Bordeaux are enjoying a rebound in orders for chinese

A favorable context for the benefit of the great names of cognac : LVMH, with its brand Hennessy ; Pernod Ricard with its flagship Martell ; and Rémy Cointreau, with its iconic Rémy Martin. In the second half of 2016, the sales of Martell have risen by 7 %. And Rémy Martin shows, for its part, a growth of 11.2 %, over the last nine months of 2016.

the Wines of bordeaux remain in pole position

Read also : exporters of wines and French spirits can pop the champaigne

Overall, according to the FEVS, exports of cognac have weighed 2.77 billion euros in 2016, an increase of 6.5 %. What grilling, for this vintage, the politeness champagne, another great figure of the alcohols French. Shipments of bubbles are in slight shrinkage of 2.5 %, for a total of 2.625 billion euros. the ” This decline is linked to the uk market. Following the vote in favour of the Brexit, the uk pound sterling has dropped, and signs were delivered to a price war, “, ” said Mr. Navarre.

The wines of appellation of controlled origin (AOC), strong point of France, which promotes the best use of its land, consolidate their position. The amount of exports reached 3,811 billion euros, a slight increase of 0.7 %, despite a volume that is eroding 0.5 %. The wines of bordeaux remain in pole position, with a total of 1.77 billion euros, although down 2.9 %. They are followed by the prestigious burgundy region, up 4.4 %, to 782 million euros. Has emphasized, the bond of 28 % of exports of wines of Provence, to 169 million euros.

Cognac, champagne and French wines have for the first destination the United States

Cognac, champagne and French wines is, therefore, to the first destination the United States. In 2016, the Americans, aided, it is true, by a parity euro-dollar supportive, have spent 2.8 billion euros, or 8% more than in 2015. This represents almost a quarter of total exports.

The Uk remains in second position, but purchases are falling, the pound sterling flageolante requires.

Read also : exports of wines and spirits are down

” chinese Market ” standard

The China, who completed the podium, confirms a return to better fortune. The sale of liquor French grew 12.7 %, to 938 million euros. the ” We are witnessing a normalization of the chinese market, with a recovery in demand, but there will be no return to the levels reached prior to the decision by the government of Beijing of the anti-ostentation “, said Mr. Navarre.

the president of the FEVS remains cautious for 2017, even though the exporters will, he says, ” market quality vintages “. He continues to argue for ” increased [their] production capacity “. It considers that ” and French wine and spirits suffer from a structural deficit availability to meet the demands of consumers.”

A very touchy subject between traders and growers. The attribution of new planting rights of vineyards in Europe, and in France, since January 2016 has thrown the disorder in the Charente-Maritime.

The union of Young Farmers has denounced the purchase of planting rights in vineyards in crisis outside of the zone of appellation of cognac, to produce, in fine, the famous eau-de-vie. The success of the cognac, the envy…

Pernod Ricard worn by the dynamics of the u.s.

According to the half-year figures (July to December 2016) published on Thursday 9 February, Pernod Ricard has seen its turnover internal progress of 4% to 5.06 billion euros. The operating income changes at the same pace. The second group in the world of spirits takes advantage of the dynamic american. In the United States, its largest market, its sales to increase by 5 % thanks to the success of his whiskey Jameson and his cognac Martell, two brands with Perrier-Jouët are the locomotives of the group. Pernod Ricard is benefiting from the rebound in sales in China and, despite the sharp deceleration in the indian market, confirms its annual objectives.


VIDEO. Guide Michelin 2017: the new stars revealed – The Express

4360 addresses identified, 616-starred, 70 new star. The Michelin-2017 announced 16 additional stars that his edition 2016, but also 52 institutions losing a star… Also expected that the dreaded -and hated – by the chiefs, the top 2017 has brought a lot of surprises, but also of coronations expected. Among the elect of this year, we find Yannick Alléno, 3-star in 1947 (hotel Cheval Blanc, Courchevel); Marc Veyrat, the 2-star the House of wood (Manigod); Nicolas Sale, 2 stars Swordfish (Ritz hotel, Paris) and 1 star to the Gardens of the Swordfish; Kei Kobayashi, 2 star Kei (Paris); Mathieu Pacaud, 1 star at the Divellec (Paris); David Bizet, and Simone Zanoni, both 1 star the hotel George V (Paris). An d only one woman: Fanny Rey.

Alexandre Gauthier, finally 2 stars

This year, red Guide has managed to retain the secret of its new stars almost until the end, unlike last year. However, he did pass some information, in particular that of the regions previously little granule were better equipped this year. This is confirmed as soon as the first ad: the institutions of the mountains are there. With Yannick Alléno in mind, of course, but also the return of Marc Veyrat and his restaurant Manigod.

in Addition to the second consecration for Yannick Alléno (now two times 3-star hotel, the Pavillon Ledoyen and the 1947), the four heads have marked this ceremony. Started by Alexander Smith, finally with the aura of a second star. In fact, for several years, the chef of La Grenouillère was celebrated by all, in particular by the guide Gault & Millau, but remained stuck at 1 star Michelin. “All that comes, the smiling chief. The team and myself, we are very proud to represent the land that it defends and the producers with whom they work. We are happy that the two truths, that of the Michelin, and ours, meet finally”, explains Alexandre Gauthier, right after the ceremony.

“When we express a freedom strong, it must be understood. In any case it should not be taken for arrogance or provocation. I always say that the Michelin is an old lady who, when she sees her grandchildren play ball in the garden, always afraid that he crushed his flowers. Today, she understood that they would not deteriorate not.” Back to La Madelaine-sous-Montreuil tomorrow, he plans to uncork a few bottles. “If we don’t celebrate it, we don’t party or anything!” Without forgetting his father, his mentor in the kitchen: “I would not tell you his head when it was learned yesterday! My father opened The Latch 37 years ago, I resumed 14 years ago. I am dedicating my first star. My second, it is for the cook that does not know, he who, full of humility and passion, strives to cook from the good to be true. And that is not under the spotlight.”

The Michelin guide “to the gap modes”

inspectors the Michelin guide is anonymous – in theory, because it happens that they arise to the head, after the meal, pay their bill, are employees of the guide, have ten years of experience in the gastronomy, a “palace of course” and the ability to translate in writing, their opinion. Once hired, each inspector is trained by his peers for two years. He was then given-with other sector – a sector or a region, it travels a few years before changing sector. The starred establishments have been tested several times during the year, by different inspectors. The visit of an inspector alone can’t decide the awarding of a star. Most importantly, no star “media”: “The Michelin guide has always held to the gap modes. We are wary in general of excitement in the media”, answered the inspector on Twitter.

The Michelin guide was created in 1900 by brothers Andre and Edouard Michelin. Today, if it exists in 28 countries, it is still the guide France that has the most impact. The edition 2017 will be on sale as of February 15. It distinguishes between the michelin-starred restaurants, but also the Bib gourmand -already announced – and the Plates, taking precedence over quality cuisine.

The new 3-stars

Yannick Alléno in 1947, hotel Cheval Blanc, Courchevel.

READ >> [Interview] Yannick Alléno, Michelin 2017: “3 stars, it is the work of a team”

The chief had, shortly before confirmed on Twitter. It was told that this morning by the director of Michelin, Michael Ellis.

new 2 stars

Marc Veyrat and his House of wood (Manigod); Nicolas Sale Swordfish (hotel Ritz, Paris); Kei Kobayashi at Kei (Paris); Christophe Pelé, Clarence (Paris); Jean-Rémy Caillon (Kintessence, K2 Palace), Gatien Demczyna (Montgomerie, K2 Altitude in Courchevel), Ronan Kervarrec at The Hostellerie de Plaisance (Saint-Émilion), La Grande Maison Bernard Magrez under the tutelage of Pierre Gagnaire, The Press of Money-led by Gordon Ramsay and Gilad Peled (Bordeaux), Pascal Bardet at the Gindreau, in Saint-Médard (46), Alexandre Gauthier at La Grenouillère, La Madelaine-sous-Montreuil, Pre-Xavier Beaudiment (Clermont-Ferrand).

new 1-star

Paris: Nicolas Sale to the Gardens of the Swordfish (hotel Ritz, Paris, france); Mathieu Pacaud Divellec (Paris); David Bizet at the Orangery (hotel George V, Paris, france); Simone Zanoni at the George (hotel George V, Paris); Pierre Rigothier to The Scene Thélème (Paris); the Palais-Royal; Sushi B; Restaurant H; Alliance; Akrame; The Archeste; The Snail 1903.

northeast: Root, the Arnsbourg (Baerenthal), High Happiness of the Table (Cassel), the Liege (Wimereux), Girardin (Colmar), the Alchémille (Kayserberg) and Julien Binz (Ammerschwihr). Mickaël Feval and Pierre Reboul (Aix-en-Provence), Fanny Rey (St-Rémy-de-Provence), Domaine du Colombier (Malataverne)

Southeast: Explorers (Val Thorens), the Roc Alto (St.-Véran), Saint-Martin (Vence), W (Annonay). Skab (Nimes), Palégrié (Corrençon-en-Vercors), Castle Blanchard (Chazelles-sur-Lyon), The Angels (Roanne), Jérémy Galvan and Miraflores (Lyon), the Palm grove (La Croix-Valmer), the Garden of Benjamin (Lorgues), The Olive tree at St Tropez and the Field of the Moons, to Lauris-Lourmarin.

southwest: the Castle of Mirambeau, the Imagination (Terrasson-Lavilledieu), the Mill of the Abbey (Brantôme), The Side (Montrabe), the Skiff Club (la Teste-de-Buch), the Logis de la Cadène (St-Émilion), the Hittau (St-Vincent-de-Tyrosse), the Château de Mercuès, the Workshop Gaztelur (Arcangues) and the Ocean (St Jean de Luz).

northwest: the 1912 (Trouville), Maximin Hellio (Deauville), Pertica (Vendôme), the Table de la Bergerie (Champ-sur-Layon), Fontevraud le Restaurant, the Inn Tiegezh (Delegate), Land-Sea (Auray), Rodolphe (Rouen), Broom (Brem-sur-Mer), the Dress (Montaigu).

institutions that lose a star

Removal of the two stars: chateau de Cordeillan Bages, Pauillac (new head that has just arrived); the Cygne, Gundershoffen (also new head arrived too late to be tested); the Big House with Joël Robuchon, Bordeaux (departure of the chief, replaced by Pierre Gagnaire. He found the 2 star rating this year under the name Grande Maison Bernard Magrez).

2 stars to 1 star: La Table du Connétable (Chantilly),Il Cortile (Mulhouse),The Table du Lancaster (Paris), Amphitryon (Toulouse).

From 1 star to no-star: Million (Albertville), The Pitch (Avignon),White Horse Inn (Bayonne),Villa Eugénie, Biarritz),Armen (Brest),The Barbican (Carcassonne),Ambrosia (Carcassonne), Next Market (Chambéry),Fleur de Sel (Clermont-Ferrand),The Cedar (Curzay-sur-Vonne),The Gardens of Sophie (Gérardmer),The Remanence (Lyon),Michel – Brasserie des Catalans in Marseille (france), Mia (Montpellier), Lea (Montrevel-en-Bresse),Goust by Enrico Bernardo (Paris),Celadon (Paris),The Truffle (Paris),Okuda (Paris), Diane (Paris), Hiramatsu (Paris), Akrame (Paris, 16th), Jacques Faussat (Paris),La Table du Pouyaud (Périgueux),Hostellerie de la Pomarède (Pomarède),The Table of the Cala Rossa (Corsica),Pouilly (Pouilly-le-Fort),The Montrachet (Puligny Montrachet),Coquerie (Rennes),Auberge le Relais (Reuilly Sauvigny),Auberge le Robur (Roure),Youpala Bistrot, Saint-Brieuc), Chartron, Saint-Donat-sur-l Herbasse), otter Trawl (Saint-Malo), Stéphane Léger (Saint-Raphaël) , star Anise (Sainte-Maxime), Esprit Terroir in Strasbourg,Hostel of the Father Bise (Talloires),La Roche le Roy (Tours),The Table of the Bear (Val d’isère), The Epicurean (Val Thorens), The Angelic (Versailles).


[MAP] Michelin-2017 : where to eat star in the Centre region and Poitou ? – the New Republic

there It is, we know the list of the restaurants awarded with one of the most famous gastronomic guides. 616 tables are now star-shaped, including a new in the Loir-et-Cher.

It is necessary still to wait a week, the February 15, before you can obtain the new edition of the Michelin Guide. But in the meantime the details, we know the names of the 616 restaurants by 2017.

A new star in the Loir-et-Cher

The new winners – or those who hang a star added to their list of achievements – are in this year the number of 70, a “record” explain the organizers.

It holds, as well first and new star for the region Centre – Val de Loire : Guillaume Foucault for the Pertica to Vendôme (41).

The star of the Centre – Val de Loire and Poitou

One star : 503 institutions, including :

  • February 14, in Saint-Valentin (36)
  • The Castle of Pray Charge (37)
  • The good Ploughman to Chenonceaux (37)
  • The Walk in Petit-Pressigny (37)
  • High Rocks to Rochecorbon (37)
  • The Orangery of the Castle Blois (41)
  • The House Next door to Montlivault (41)
  • The Grand Hotel du Lion d’or to Romorantin-Lanthenay (41)
  • Passions et gourmandises in Saint-Benoît (86)

Two stars : 86 institutions, including :

  • The Domaine des Hauts de Loire to Onzain (41)

Three stars : a 27 settlements, of which 1 is new (Courchevel)


also note, the image of the Château de Curzay in the Vienna or La Roche Le Roy in Indre-et-Loire, there 52 establishments who lose their distinction (following the closure of the school, the change of the head, or by a decision of the inspectors).

generally speaking, the leaders of the Michelin Guide 2017 have noted the emergence of new trends (maps, short, more season and a desire to supply locally).

>> The map of michelin-starred restaurants online Guide :


Michelin Guide : who are its mysterious inspectors, makers of stars ? – The Echoes

for more than one hundred and fifteen years they inflame the world of gastronomy awaits and fears of their oracles. They exist, we know, but how much are they ? They are there, melted in the customer, incorruptible, and incognito but how to operate ? Their powers are immense, and their decrees without appeal, but is that their judgments are guided by a code, to a regulation ?

That so ? The inspectors of the Michelin Guide . Five questions to raise a corner of the veil on this secrecy.

How much are they ?

The exact figure remains top secret but, in the seraglio, it is estimated that they represent a body of 90 to 110 people. Profile : former chefs or ex-students of hotel schools that have five or ten years in the business. Once recruited, they follow a six-month training with inspectors confirmed.

“today, we have separate inspectors by their profiles and their countries of origin – we have 15 different nationalities in our teams – working on all of our publications. For a new guide, we assemble an international team that will provide consistency in expectations and judgments relative to our other guides, as well as a diversity of points of view,” says Gwendal Poullennec, the international development director of the Michelin Guide.

Where do they go ?

The bloodhounds of the Michelin track down the best tables in 27 countries around the world After having crossed the Atlantic in 2004 (publication of the Michelin guide New York City), they are off to explore Tokyo in 2006 (vintage 2008). Since then, the movement has accelerated : after a first destination in Latin America by 2015 (Rio de Janeiro & Sao Paulo), four new cities have found out the famous star and other Bib Gourmand in 2016 : Washington DC, Seoul, Shanghai and Singapore.

enter a new destination is a challenge. The team visited from top to bottom the country or the day before, in order to lay the groundwork to present a comprehensive view of the local cuisine.

How to operate ?

Arrival on site, the team is going to go spotting for a list of establishments to visit. To this end, it will rely on all available sources of information. “We have to recruit at the same time, local profiles that will assist us in this task. They are trained to become inspectors which will ensure future editions of the guide, and that may be, one day, called to their turn to launch a guide in another country,” says Gwendal Poullennec.

It is then that begins the field work : to visit the establishments identified, carve up the city to expand the list, listen to, and follow the locals to discover the essence of local gastronomy. It is this that has enabled Michelin to add the gastro-pubs in its guide to Great Britain and Ireland. This is because its inspectors have travelled tirelessly the streets of Singapore that Michelin is now able to offer the best of the street food.

The famous little red book is updated each year, their task is also to monitor the evolution of the restaurants listed in the previous edition and to discover new addresses that will enrich it.

How to note ?

they are on a mission to Paris, Seoul or Rio, the inspectors of the Michelin all use one and the same “reading grid” to judge the restaurants. These criteria respond to an imperative one : “The plate, the whole plate, just the plate”. These criteria are the number of five : the quality of the products; the control of cooking or flavors when the products are offered without cooking; the personality of the kitchen (that is to say, the turn of the hand of the chief); the regularity in the quality of the dishes proposed in its “Anthology of taste” published in 1826, Anthelme Brillat-Savarin pointed out already : “of all the qualities of a cook, the most indispensable is the accuracy” – and, finally, the report quality-price.

Contrary to what would like to the rumor, none of the other criteria does not interfere in the awarding of stars. Not even the standing of the institution, which is the subject of a specific note on a scale of 1 to 5, and ” covered “. The special quality of the service does not play no more, even if the inspector can make a particular spell in his commentary.

This is true, however, is that the inspectors pay their bill, do not take any notes during their meal and leave without greeting the chief or the director of the institution.

The number of distinction to be awarded is pre-determined ?

In any case, Gwendal Poullennec : “Our guides show the best places where they are found. One, or more, stars correspond to the same requirement on the part of our inspectors, regardless of the place”. When a guide is running, the number of restaurants that receive one or more stars, or any other distinction, is not determined in advance. Proof : the number of stars varies strongly from one destination to the other, and some do not yet have a restaurant 3 stars. To this day, they are only 112 restaurants in the world to be able to display the supreme award.

The edition 2017 recently published account 616-starred restaurants (one, two, or three stars), sixteen more than in 2016. Seventy tables to earn stars, while fifty-two lose one or more

Our guides show the best places where they are found. One, or more, stars correspond to the same requirement on the part of our inspectors, regardless of the place

It is therefore only a function of the grid of reading of the gastronome referred to above that are awarded, not only the stars that distinguish the elite of the chefs but also the words “Bib Gourmand” -which focuses on the price-quality ratio) or even the “Plates”.

that Emerged last year, these last refer to the gourmets and gourmands of the conservators capable of performing “a good meal, quite simply,” says Michelin. A-t-on to all saw flowering of the “Plates” on all fronts ? No, the badge is rare. An example : in the department of the Loire, only thirty-three restaurants have been honored in the past year, including three for the sole city of Saint-Galmier .

Jean-Michel Gradt


Michelin Guide : “A little bit drowned out, but it’s still a symbol” – Franceinfo

Why the Michelin Guide is so important in our culinary landscape ? the “first, it was the only one in a very long time, and it represented the consecration of French cuisine at a time when there was no other basis of comparison as this one. Today things have changed, the information of culinary and gastronomic on the web, everywhere, publications, sites, blogs. So it is a little bit drowned out, but it’s still a symbol”, observed Périco Légasse.

The edition 2017 identifies 616 starred establishments. Is this a good year ? the “We can no longer expect the Michelin Guide today to find out who are the great cooks, what are the stars of the kitchen. They are already very high profile in the media. He has also taken part in their media coverage”, ” says the restaurant critic. Nevertheless, the influence on attendance remains important for institutions devoted to it.

see also related Topics read on


Total: production oriented, the dividend statement. – The Express

The accounts in Total have been worn, by the end of last year, by the rising of the barrel. The major petro-gas, French continues to reduce its breakeven point, has also increased its production of 4.5%, a rate that it intends to maintain in 2017 to 4%. In the context of, the quarterly dividend is slightly raised, to 0.62 euro per share.

down 9% on the year 2016 149.7 billion, the turnover of the group has, however, increased 12% in the 4th quarter (Q4), which reflects the change in the average price of hydrocarbons (- 19% year-on-year, + 8% in Q4). Ditto for adjusted net operating income of the segments : – 17% on the year to $ 9.4 billion, but + 17% in Q4 to $ 2.7 billion, this last figure being pulled by Upstream (+ 51% to $ 1.1 billion).

Finally, the adjusted net income from Total for 2016 spring 2016 to $ 8.3 billion (- 21% ; 3,38 $ per share), while back in Q4 of 16% to $ 2.4 billion (0.96 in dollar per share). The CEO Patrick Pouyanné emphasises the ‘resilience’ of the accounts.

on the production side, a key indicator in the sector, Total extracted last year 2,452 million barrels of oil equivalent/day (Mbep/j), which is 4.5% better than in 2015. The only T4, this figure had increased to 2,462 Mbep/j (+ 4.7 per cent). On the side of the balance sheet, the ‘gearing’ is 27%.

as a Sign of its confidence in the future, Total has risen to 1.6 per cent (or a penny), to 0.62 euro per share, the coupon in respect of the 4th quarter of 2016, which will be detached in June.

In lieu of prospects, Total expects that by 2017, its production will increase by 4%, supporting the objective of horizon 2020. And the direction to add : ‘in 2017, the dead point will continue to decline to less than $ 40 per barrel before dividend. The operating cash flow covers the investment and the party’s cash dividend to $ 50 a barrel’.

Finally, the management intends to put an end to the dividend payable in shares when the barrel of Brent will rise to $ 60. It rating 55,5 dollars this morning.

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